Location and Regional Context of the Borough - Nesquehoning is the largest Borough in Pennsylvania, 31 1/2 square miles. Nesquehoning is located in the central eastern part of the State. The Borough of Nesquehoning is in the west central part of Carbon County. To the west is Rush Township, Schuylkill County. To the east is Jim Thorpe, which is in the County seat of Carbon County. The southern part of the Borough, is a prime anthracite coal mining area of the coal region. The area to the north of Nesquehoning includes Packer and Lehigh Townships. Both are rural, forested and agricultural in character. Much of the land in Nesquehoning Borough next to these two Townships is in forest, and State Game Land. A small part of the Lehigh River and its gorge traverse the extreme north eastern section of the Borough.
Nesquehoning Borough lies in the Appalachian Mountain Section of the Ridge and Valley Physiographic Province. The overall landscape of the Borough and its surrounding is characterized by its long mountain ridges with steep hillsides and narrow valleys, as well as numerous picturesque mountain streams or creeks. In fact, the name of Borough, Nesquehoning, originated from an Indian word which, means "narrow valley."
The Nesquehoning Creek, a tributary of Lehigh River, flows eastwardly through the Borough and enters the scenic Lehigh River at the eastern border of the Borough. The Broad Mountain is on the north side of the creek, and the Nesquehoning Mountain (formerly Locust Mountain) is on the south side of the creek. These two densely forested parallel mountain ridges form a narrow valley and create a strong sense of enclosure. The mountains form a dominant natural feature and a backdrop in almost every scene viewed from the Borough, visible from almost anywhere in the Borough. Nesquehoning Borough is built on the lower hillsides of both sides of this valley.